Ever thought how a big country like India works?
Who runs it and with whose help?
So basically, a big group called the government is employed to run this big country India. The government is employed by whom? The people of India, who vote and elect their representative to run the country. This kind of government is called Democracy.
As you know, during the British rule in India, women and poor people were not allowed to vote. The British were given better treatment and separated from Indians because their skin colours were different. All these actions are called discrimination.
Discrimination is when someone is treated very poorly because of their gender, colour or race. This is usually seen when a country is ruled by a monarchy.
However, After independence, India has a democratic government, where people vote for leaders and participate in decision making.
If these leaders do not do a good job, they can be replaced in the next elections after 5 years.
There are other ways besides voting by which people can participate in the work that the government does.
They can voice their opinions to the government about decisions or laws. The government has to listen to the people and either convince them of the decision or change it entirely.
In a democracy, the people organise signature campaigns, protests, strikes etc. and use newspapers, TV news and magazines to have a discussion with the government.
The people also organise social movements to point out something wrong or their disappointment in a government decision.
People belonging to minority communities such as Dalits and Adivasis often participate this way.
People’s participation is one way in which a government works. Another way is by resolving conflicts that affect people’s welfare.
When people of different backgrounds come together, conflict arises among them. The government takes steps to resolve them before they get violent.
State governments can also get into conflicts.
For example, river water is used by people in states where the river flows.
However, if one state builds a dam and interferes with the flow of water, the distribution of water becomes the cause of conflict.
The central government interferes and resolves the conflict by deciding how the states can get water in fair distribution.
The government of a democracy always makes sure that the people are treated equally and face no injustice.
For example, the group of people who were considered untouchables before independence are now treated equally, thanks to the law that Dr B R Ambedkar.
Girls were not considered equal to boys in the society. The government started several campaigns and programs to save girls and give them equal opportunities.
This is how a democratic government works and this is how you revise your chapter, Key Elements of the Democratic Government.
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